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Brominated Vegetable Oil, Flame Retardant, and Bromine Toxicity

Linda Crampton is an experienced teacher with an honors degree in biology. She writes about nutrition and the culture and history of food.

Lake Huron has been found to contain a significant concentration of brominated flame retardants.

Lake Huron has been found to contain a significant concentration of brominated flame retardants.

Bromine Exposure

Bromine is an interesting chemical that is toxic to humans unless it's present at a very low concentration. Two ways in which we may be exposed to the chemical are via the brominated vegetable oil that is present in some soft drinks and via contact with brominated flame retardants. Historically, people were exposed to bromine through the use of certain sedatives.

When bromine is added to vegetable oil, brominated vegetable oil or BVO is produced. The process gives the oil a similar density to water. A small amount of BVO is mixed with some citrus-flavored soft drinks—both fizzy and non-fizzy—so that the oil-soluble flavors don’t separate from the liquid.

BVO has been banned in some parts of the world, including Europe. North American health agencies say that the chemical is safe at the levels normally used in drinks. Some people have experienced ill effects from an excessive intake of the chemical, however.

Brominated flame retardants escape into the environment from products containing them during the lifetime of the products or after they are thrown away. Unfortunately, the compounds don't break down but persist in the environment. In addition, if they enter the human body, they accumulate there.

Check the ingredients of your soft drink to see if it contains brominated vegetable oil.

Check the ingredients of your soft drink to see if it contains brominated vegetable oil.

An Important Note

This article is written mainly from a North American perspective. The situation with respect to bromine in the environment and our exposure to it may be worse or better in other parts of the world compared to the situation in North America. The potential effects of the chemical if it's present apply to all countries, however.

BVO in Soft Drinks

In North America, the amount of BVO in soft drinks is limited to 15 parts per million, which health agencies (the FDA or Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada) say is safe. However, this limit was established years ago.

As the first document referred to in the "Reference" section below states, the FDA says that the limit is an interim value for "fruit-flavored beverages" and that it wants to receive the reports of toxicology tests performed at six month intervals. When I last viewed the document, it had been updated on January 6th, 2022. The second reference from the FDA shown below indicates that the substance is still being investigated. The process of testing and evaluating seems to be taking a long time.

The daily consumption of soft drinks in some parts of the world has increased dramatically. We really need new tests to confirm that the average intake of the chemical today is safe. The FDA says that "few brands" in the United States still use the additive. This may not be the case in other countries. In addition, if someone's favourite drink is one of the "few brands" and they drink lots of it, a problem could develop. The quote below refers to a rodent experiment. Since rodents are mammals like us, the results might apply to humans.

We also fed test animals amounts of BVO that were near our estimated BVO consumption for people who consume BVO at high levels to better simulate real-life exposure. The data from the study suggest that oral exposure to BVO is associated with increased tissue levels of bromine and that at high levels of exposure the thyroid is a target organ of potential negative health effects in rodents.

— Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Bromism Caused by Soft Drink Consumption

There is evidence that BVO is harmful at high doses. Many people ingesting soft drinks may never reach a sufficient dosage to cause harm, but the literature shows that some people have. An excessive intake of BVO may cause a condition called bromism. Two examples of this condition are described below.

In 1997, a report by a researcher at the University of California described a male who consumed two to four liters of a cola containing BVO every day for at least 30 days. He developed symptoms of bromism, or injurious effects on the nervous system due to bromine buildup. The symptoms were progressive, starting with a headache, memory loss, and ataxia (loss of muscle coordination) and ending with an inability to walk.

The patient required hemodialysis in order to recover. In hemodialysis, the patient’s blood is sent through a device which acts as an artificial kidney, removing specific chemicals from the blood.

A 2012 study at the University of Hohenheim in Germany found that after people had consumed “several” drinks containing brominated vegetable oil every day for an unspecified length of time, they experienced a headache, fatigue, memory loss, and loss of muscle coordination.

Some people drink multiple cans of soft drinks every day. If these contain BVO, problems could appear.

Some people drink multiple cans of soft drinks every day. If these contain BVO, problems could appear.

Bromoderma After Consuming Soft Drinks

A report in the New England Journal of Medicine (referenced below) described a case of bromoderma that developed in someone who had been drinking eight liters of a soft drink containing BVO every day for several months. Bromoderma is a skin condition in which red pustules appear on the skin after exposure to bromine or bromide. Some of these areas may release an exudate. Bromide and bromine are related chemicals. Bromide ions are produced from bromine atoms.

Bromoderma is sometimes known as halogenoderma because excessive iodine consumption can cause the same symptoms. Bromine and iodine belong to group 17 on the periodic table, which is also known as the halogen family. Some cases of bromoderma or halogenoderma may be misinterpreted as an infection. It's important that a person visits a doctor to get a correct diagnosis and treatment.

The examples described above suggest that a high intake of BVO over a long period of time is necessary in order for health problems to develop. Low and occasional consumption of the additive is probably safe, although this is not absolutely certain.

Safety of Brominated Vegetable Oil

Soft drink makers in North America point out that health agencies say that brominated vegetable oil in drinks is safe. Concerned researchers say that BVO hasn't been tested adequately at today's intake levels and that the guidelines for its use were determined many years ago when our drinking habits were different. The 15 parts per million limit established in the 1970s and was supposed to be an interim value until more testing was done, but many years later the same limit is in place.

Proponents of brominated vegetable oil remind us that many substances in food and beverages would be dangerous if eaten or drunk in large quantities but are safe in small or moderate quantities. In general, health experts seem to think that a low to moderate consumption of soft drinks containing BVO is unlikely to cause any problems, but a high consumption of the beverages might. It's probably a good idea to choose a beverage without BVO or to drink one containing the additive in moderation.

Brominated Flame Retardants

Brominated Flame Retardants, or BFRs, are organic compounds containing bromine. They are added to products such as carpets, mattresses, drapes, upholstered furniture, plastics, and electronic equipment to reduce the chance of a fire spreading. BFRs slowly escape from products after being added to them and when the products are discarded. This leads to contamination of the air, soil, and water. The chemicals are persistent, which means that don't break down easily when released into the environment. They are also said to be bioaccumulative because they collect in the tissues of living things. This means that even when a particular BFR is no longer used by manufacturers, it may still be hurting us.

Bromine compounds released into the environment can enter our bodies in our food. Different types of BFRs may have different health effects. Based on animal studies, it's thought that the chemicals may be able to cause nerve damage, thyroid problems, and DNA injury. Some of the chemicals are suspected of being carcinogens, or chemicals that can cause cancer.

One way in which brominated flame retardants stop fire is by the action of the bromine that they contain. The bromine is released into the burning material in an activated form. The activated bromine stops or slows the chemical reactions taking place, thereby reducing or preventing burning. The retardants can certainly be helpful, but it would be nice to find products that are just as useful and are also safe for humans and the environment.

Brominated flame retardants have been found in Lake Erie.

Brominated flame retardants have been found in Lake Erie.

Some brominated flame retardants may be safe at a low concentration but dangerous at a higher one. In November, 2016, the International Joint Commission announced that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (or PBDEs) had reached a level in the Great Lakes basin that was potentially harmful for human health. Lake Huron and Lake Erie were most seriously affected.

The Search for Effective and Safe Flame Retardants

Effective flame retardants are important in our lives, but some are harmful. Researchers are exploring specific chemicals from nature and chemicals based on natural molecules. These may be safe compounds that could be useful in the prevention or weakening of fires.

Bromide Toxicity and Historical Sedatives

Bromine in its molecular form is very toxic. As a liquid, it's corrosive and can burn skin. The inhaled gas irritates the air passages, makes breathing difficult, and may cause a headache, dizziness, and runny eyes.

Bromine in the body exists in its ionic form, which is called bromide. This too is toxic, although it's not as dangerous as the bromine molecule. Bromide is a cumulative poison. Dangerous symptoms may not appear immediately but may develop as the chemical builds up in the body. Bromide is eliminated in the urine, but it stays in the body for a long time—nine to twelve days—before this elimination happens.

Up until 1975, medicines containing bromides were used as sedatives and anticonvulsants. Some were widely advertised and were available over-the-counter. Two early and popular products were Dr. Miles Nervine, which was used to soothe tension, and Bromo-Seltzer, which contained sodium bromide and was used to relieve headaches.

Bromide sedatives were withdrawn because of their toxicity and their ability to cause chronic bromism. People with bromism may experience emotional instability, hallucinations, and slurred speech in addition to memory loss and movement problems. Unfortunately, in the past some people who developed bromism after taking bromide sedatives were admitted to psychiatric hospitals because their doctors didn't realize that they were being poisoned by their medication.

Sodium bromide may still be used in medicines in some countries. Anyone with questions about the chemical should consult their doctor.

Bromine is a red-brown liquid at room temperature.

Bromine is a red-brown liquid at room temperature.

Safety of the Chemical in the Environment

For most of us, it's harder to avoid bromine in flame retardant than it is to avoid brominated vegetable oil. We can control or eliminate BVO in our bodies by deciding what drinks to ingest and how often to drink them. We may be exposed to brominated flame retardants even if we don't have them in the items in our home, however.

Flame retardants can be very useful and are important products. Since the chemicals are often sprayed on products or otherwise loosely attached, they can escape into their surroundings quite easily. The ability of some of them to persist in the environment is worrying. Some manufacturers are now using a different type of retardant instead of a brominated one. The problem is that items from the past in landfills and other areas are still releasing bromine compounds from their surface.

It would probably be a good idea for consumers to investigate the type of flame retardant added to a household product that they want to buy. Although many people never think of doing this, it could be a good practice to start, for our sake and for the sake of other people. Chemical problems in the environment can stay with us for a long time. The problem with BFRs is a reminder that what we do today can affect the future.


  • CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 from the FDA
  • Facts about BVO in soft drinks from the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the United States
  • Soda and brominated vegetable oil from the Mayo Clinic
  • A Case of Bromism from Europe PubMed Central (Europe PMC)
  • Reference to University of Hohenheim Study from The Star newspaper (Note that while the information in the article is useful, the headline is out of date. The Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola companies have now removed BVO from their products, at least in North America.)
  • A Case of Bromoderma from the New England Journal of Medicine (Abstract)
  • Bromoderma information (a collection of abstracts) from ScienceDirect
  • Brominated Flame Retardants from the European Food Safety Authority
  • Flame Retardants in the Great Lakes Basin from Michigan Live (This article contains a link to the full report.)

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2013 Linda Crampton


Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on February 08, 2015:

Thanks for the comment, anonymus. I hope you're able to find a soft drink that you like which doesn't contain BVO!

anonymus on February 08, 2015:

After reading this, I may never drink soda again! This scared me and I will have to let my family know. Thank you so much Alicia!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 05, 2013:

Hi, Dianna. I only drink soft drinks occasionally too, and I try to avoid eating processed foods whenever possible as well. I don't like consuming artificial additives. Thanks for the comment and the vote!

Dianna Mendez on January 05, 2013:

I don't drink soft drinks as a norm, only one special occasions (and that is rare). The facts on brominate in soft drinks is scary, to say the least. The flame retardant issue is very concerning for me. I do agree that more research is needed! Voted up.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 04, 2013:

Thank you very much for the visit and the kind comment, Denise. I've heard of Bromo-Seltzer before, but I don't remember any advertisements about it. I did read about the Bromo-Seltzer train recently, though, and now I keep on hearing it in my mind!

Denise Handlon from North Carolina on January 04, 2013:

I feel so uninformed-I'll be checking for BVO now in the list of ingredients. Thanks for sharing this very informative it'll make the HOTD list soon!

BTW-I remember the bromo selzer commercials...not exactly the same kind, but the product.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 04, 2013:

Thank you for the comment, onegreenparachute. It is frightening to think about the medicines that our relatives took in the past without realizing the harm that they could cause!

Carol from Greenwood, B.C., Canada on January 04, 2013:

Excellent information Alicia. I had no idea about BVOs and I'm always glad to get new info. When I saw the Bromo-Seltzer advert. I got an immediate picture of my dear 'ol dad swigging his morning dose! Yikes!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 04, 2013:

Hi, Martie. The additives in processed foods are certainly worrying. BVO is generally added to fruit-flavored soft drinks rather than to colas, but some colas have controversial chemicals in them too! Thank you very much for the comment.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 04, 2013:

Thanks for the visit and the comment, Laura in Denver!

Martie Coetser from South Africa on January 04, 2013:

Alicia, I was totally unaware of Bromine and brominated vegetable oil and its health effects. If I heard of this before, I would have ignored all info, because I prefer not to know detail of this nature. (I will go nuts!) But after reading this hub of yours, I feel like checking the ingredients of our soft drinks - I drink up to 1 liter Coke Light per day, and it does give me headaches! Oh boy, I wonder what will be left to eat and drink when we chuck all unhealthy stuff?

Excellent, informative hub, as always!

Laura Deibel from Aurora, CO on January 04, 2013:

Very informative health information. Thanks!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 04, 2013:

Hi, Crystal. It is scary, especially when we eat processed foods that contain artificial additives (although some natural foods contain potentially dangerous chemicals too). I appreciate your comment, as well as the vote and the share.

Crystal Tatum from Georgia on January 04, 2013:

It's very scary, what we're consuming without knowing it. A very interesting and enlightening article. Voted up and sharing.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 04, 2013:

Hi, Nell. Yes, you're right, drinking several liters of a soft drink each day would cause other health problems besides those caused by brominated vegetable oil! Thank you very much for the comment, the vote and the share.

Nell Rose from England on January 04, 2013:

Hi Alicia, scary stuff, I remember reading a couple of years ago about someone going into hospital because they drank too much cola on a daily basis, now I know why. to be honest drinking that amount a day would cause trouble in other ways too. I do think we trust the makers of drink or even the furniture why buy too easily, its not something we think about, we just trust them to know best, thanks for the info and voted up and shared, nell

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 03, 2013:

Hi, drbj. Thank you for the visit and the comment. I wish researchers would study BVO more - we need to know more about its presence in soft drinks! 1977 research is almost certainly inapplicable to today's society.

drbj and sherry from south Florida on January 03, 2013:

Thank you, Alicia, for elaborating on the side effects of BVO - especially in the popular soft drinks easily available today. It is a dangerous substance and I first alluded to it in my "Interview with FDA Spokesperson Part One."

Just imagine drinking a substance that is also used as a flame retardant. Boggles the mind, doesn't it?

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 02, 2013:

Hi, Deb. It would be nice if new testing was done to see if the 1977 allowable amount of brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks is still suitable today. A lot of changes can happen in 35 years!

Deb Hirt from Stillwater, OK on January 02, 2013:

And this was passed by the FDA...what a frightening thought.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 02, 2013:

Thanks for the comment, Kathi. I appreciate your visit!

Kathi Mirto from Fennville on January 02, 2013:

I gave up soft drinks years ago, thank goodness, and so did one of my sons. I'll have to get after my other son about this! Thank you for sharing.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 02, 2013:

Thank you very much for the comment, Rosie writes. I don't drink soft drinks very often, but it's good to know about their ingredients!

Audrey Surma from Virginia on January 02, 2013:

Very well written and informative hub. I gave up softdrinks a few years ago, but family members still drink it. I will be checking for BVO as I knew nothing about it. Thanks for the information.