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Aging-Related Eye Diseases

Meloncauli is a former nurse and anxiety management therapist. She hopes everyone can take something away from her articles.

Testing for eye disease

Testing for eye disease

My Experience With Deteriorating Vision

I wear glasses and have done so since I was thirty-five years old. I started out with reading glasses, and I actually felt rather cool about it at the time! My mother once said to me, “Only wear your glasses when you really need to, or you will risk deterioration much quicker!"

I don’t know if there was any truth in what she said because I did have a habit of leaving my glasses on when I wasn’t reading, but within three years, I was wearing bifocals. It seems to me that every two years, I need a stronger prescription, and this horrifies me, leaving me with “visions” of jam jar bottoms by the time I hit sixty!

Vision Problems Can Be Hereditary

Most of my family wears glasses, and all of us needed to wear them by the time we had hit our thirties or forties. Two of my children now wear glasses, and they are only in their late teens. They must take after their father, who wore glasses as a child. Bad eyesight can be a family affair!

We often take our eyesight, along with all our other senses, for granted. Everything will be okay because our optician will just keep giving us the right glasses when we need them. As we get older, our eyesight tends to deteriorate anyway, but we are also more prone to get eye diseases that, in some cases, can actually cause us to go blind. I am going to talk about three of the eye diseases that we may encounter as we age.

This article will cover:

  • Glaucoma
  • Cataracts
  • Macular degeneration

Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) can occur in either dry or wet forms, but the dry disease is the most common. My father has suffered with this condition for eight years, and it has certainly had an impact on his life.

What Is Macular Degeneration?

The retina is a membrane situated at the back of the eye, through which we detect light. In the middle of the retina lies an area called the macula, which gives us our detailed central vision. There are increased light receptor cells in this area and “cones” which detect color.

If we are looking at something directly in front of us, healthy eyes would be able to clarify details like shape and color very clearly. A person with macular degeneration has a blind spot in the centre of their vision, which causes blurred vision, so the clarity of the object is lost.

Dry vs. Wet Macular Degeneration

Dry macular degeneration always occurs before wet degeneration and worsens over time. As we get older, tiny deposits known as drusen can collect under the retina, causing an uneven retina. At first, this wouldn’t affect our field of vision, but with time and more build-up of drusen, there would be damage to the macula area and some sight loss. Light-sensitive cells would become thinned down, and eventually, an advanced stage is reached.

At this point, we would have difficulty seeing any object in front of us clearly. It may only affect one eye, and vision may be compensated for by the good eye. In this case, it may take a while longer for us to realize that we even have a problem. In any case, the progression of the disease may take years.

Symptoms of Dry Macular Degeneration

We may experience subtle difficulties in the early to intermediate stages of macular degeneration, such as:

  • Not seeing so well in dimly lit places – needing more light
  • Finding such things as reading or needlework more difficult
  • Blurriness when looking at an object head-on and at close range
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As the disease progresses to an advanced stage, we would notice:

  • Objects appearing less colorful
  • Increasing blurriness/haziness of vision

Wet Macular Degeneration

It is impossible to tell if a dry degeneration will turn wet, but it still can in a small percentage of people and at any stage. This change from dry to wet is usually sudden, too. If blood vessels form beneath the macula leak blood/fluid into the retina, the situation is much worse. Straight lines will be replaced by wavy lines on top of all the symptoms of dry macular disease. Eventually, scarring can cause severe or total loss of central vision.

What Increases the Risk of Getting Macular Degeneration?

We may be at an increased risk of developing dry macular degeneration if any of the following apply:

  • Over sixty years old
  • Smokers
  • A family member has suffered from it
  • Obesity
  • Sleep apnea
  • High blood pressure
  • White Caucasian
  • High cholesterol


Cataracts affect the lens of one or both of our eyes and can develop as we age. Slow progressive clouding of the lens causes deterioration in vision which for a long time we may put down to natural aging “bad eyesight.” A large majority of us will have cataracts in our old age and may only learn that we have them through a routine eye check, but once this is identified, we can look to find treatment. Many thousands of cataract operations are performed every year and, on the whole, are very successful.

Symptoms of Cataracts

Symptoms of cataracts slowly creep up and worsen over a number of years. Here are some of the symptoms we will experience:

  • Oversensitivity to bright lights/glare
  • Colors looking washed out or less clear
  • Difficulty seeing well in dim light, very bright lights, sunlight
  • Blurred vision
  • Seeing things as misty
  • Double vision
  • Seeing things as if with a yellowish hue
  • Frequent stronger prescriptions are needed for nearsightedness
  • Experience small dots or spots in your vision
  • Seeing a circle of light surrounding a strong light such as headlights

As cataracts progress and become severe, a veil of grey/ milky color can be seen in the center of the eye. There are different types of cataracts, but those affecting the elderly are the most common.

What Increases the Risk of Getting Cataracts?

  • Old age
  • Previous eye injury
  • Smoking
  • Drinking alcohol
  • Too much exposure to direct sunlight
  • A bad diet devoid of fresh, healthy foods
  • Long-term use of steroids
  • Diabetes
  • Glaucoma

An ophthalmologist will be consulted to assess cataracts and your medical suitability to have a cataract operation. This operation replaces the bad lens with an artificial one and can be carried out as a day patient under local anesthetic.

Smoking cigarettes is a risk factor in eye disease.

Smoking cigarettes is a risk factor in eye disease.


For many years, glaucoma has been primarily thought to be caused by pressure build-up in the eyes, but there is a school of thought that suggests it should be thought of as a degenerative nerve disorder. Glaucoma is actually a group of eye diseases involving fluid build-up, poor blood flow, and ultimately damage to the optic nerve.

Some people with elevated pressure in their eyes do not have glaucoma, but equally, some people with glaucoma do not have elevated pressure, so it is not a clear-cut case of pressure. It is damage to the optic nerve that will lead to a diagnosis of glaucoma.

Slow Onset Can Mean Slow Diagnosis

It is thought that many people are walking around totally unaware that they have the onset of glaucoma, probably because some people don’t feel the need to have regular eye checks. It is a serious disease that causes loss of vision and can cause blindness.

The loss of vision is very gradual, so it can go undetected for a very long time. There are many types of glaucoma, but primary open-angle glaucoma is the most common, generally associated with increasing age and the type being discussed here.

Symptoms of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

Symptoms are sorely lacking as the peripheral vision is affected first. Someone with early glaucoma would simply not notice anything amiss by way of symptoms. The vision that is lost is so slow to progress that by the time the optic nerve has become severely damaged, the disease is at a serious stage. This is why it is very important that regular eye checks are carried out, especially as we age.

What Increases the Risks of Getting Glaucoma?

  • Increasing age
  • Those with African ancestry are at a much greater risk
  • Family members who have glaucoma
  • Nearsightedness (myopia)
  • Previous eye injury
  • Long-term use of steroids
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Eye surgery
  • Diabetes

Treatment for Glaucoma

Treatment for glaucoma is by way of eye drops to reduce eye pressure. Surgery or laser treatment can be performed in cases that do not respond to eye drop medication or for those who do not tolerate the side effects of the eye drops. Cataracts are often seen at the same time as glaucoma, and the two can be dealt with via surgery.

Surgery for glaucoma will not bring back any sight that is lost but can help save remaining sight by reducing pressure. Untreated glaucoma results in tunnel vision when all of the peripheral vision is lost, but taking the prescribed eye drops and attending regular checkups should help prevent total blindness or at the least slow down the progress of the disease.

Aging and Our Eyes

Low vision can be a natural part of growing older, and we tend to accept this readily. We may not be able to prevent some eye diseases, but there are some things we can do to lessen the chances or reduce the severity.

It is very important that we get regular checkups with our eye specialists, especially over the age of sixty. If we know we have eye disease in the family, we should be doubly sure.

Further Reading

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.


meloncauli (author) from UK on November 29, 2012:

Hi MizBejabbers!

I find your comments very interesting. I don't actually take any medications regularly, apart from paracetamol. I do however have seasonal allergies, and at those times I take allergy meds. I shall be looking closely into my history now, having taken on board what you have experienced.

Many thanks for dropping by to leave a comment.

Doris James MizBejabbers from Beautiful South on November 29, 2012:

This is a superb hub, very informative, and the writing is very professional. Count me in as a new follower. I noticed your complaint of one problem that I have, and that is frequent prescription changes. My great doctor who did my Lasik traced it to my medications, especially allergy meds. I developed bad allergies my freshman year of college at age 18 and by the time I was 21, I was wearing glasses for mild myopia. The myopia progressed at what I would consider a normal rate until my 40s, then it zoomed off like a rocket. After checking my own history, I realized that I was getting stronger prescriptions each year after major spring allergy attacks. I finally found a prescription that does not regress my eyes, but I have to watch other medications, especially OTC and any anesthesia and prescription painkillers. Both my older son and I can’t take Aleve because it regresses our eyes.

Five years after the Lasik, I developed very fast-growing cataracts in my line of vision in both eyes and had to have them removed within a year after diagnosis. The doctor who removed them is one of the world’s finest, in fact, he is credited with pioneering no-stitch cataract surgery. He told me that my eyes could not regress again after lens implants, but he was wrong. My Lasik surgeon is also my ophthalmologist and a partner with the cataract surgeon, and he said his partner was wrong about lens implanted eyes not regressing. But by that time it was too late, and now five years later, my prescription is back up to -2. I hope my story helps you to trace what may be causing your frequent prescription changes.

Voted you up, interesting, and useful!

meloncauli (author) from UK on October 23, 2012:

Thanks for your comment Leah. It's great that your grandmother's operation went well and sends out hope to others suffering with cataracts. :)

Leah Lefler from Western New York on October 23, 2012:

This is a great article, meloncauli. My grandmother recently had cataracts removed and she was amazed by all the color she had been missing! She describes colors as "muddy" before her operation, and now everything is bright again.

meloncauli (author) from UK on October 23, 2012:

Thanks very much for your comment Denise.:)

Denise Handlon from North Carolina on October 23, 2012:

Excellent educational piece on this eye disease. Up / U/ I Thanks for sharing.

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